"On the other hand, others consider that an open standard must be royalty-free. 3 Advocates of that approach are convinced that society as a whole would benefit from the open and royalty-free access to standards, as is the case, for example, in the Internet context, which was established precisely in order to allow the free publication and retrieval of information from the web. According to this view, the royalty-free model would best promote interoperability, greater innovation and consumer welfare. In addition, it is argued that, even where a royalty-free policy is adopted, the commercial benefits of standardization may outweigh the loss of royalty income in certain technologies, simply in that greater quantities of a certain product will be sold. In this context, the notion of “open source” is often mentioned, but it should not be confused with open standards."